Supply of electricity, district heating and natural gas
Denmark has a highly-developed supply system that ensures a stable and safe supply of electricity, heat and gas to the Danes. The Danish Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate strives to ensure continuous development and future-proof supply of the entire supply system.
Denmark is one of the leading countries as to the transition to sustainable energy. Today, more than 50 % of the total Danish electricity consumption comes from renewable energy sources such as windmills and solar cells.
With a security of electricity supply of more than 99%, Denmark has one of the most reliable supplies in the world. This is i.a. since we are good at adapting wind power to the electricity system and that the cabling of the electrical power grid is highly developed.
Due to a relatively high population density and size Denmark has, seen from a historical point of view, good conditions for district heating.
District heating is an important factor of the transition to more sustainable energy. This is because district heating uses bio-energy and waste to produce district heating and cogenerated heat, and because wind power is adaptable by means of e.g. heat pumps.
In the energy agreement of 2012 a political decision was made to check the role of district heating of future energy supply. One of the conclusions of the report was that there is an economic gain if heat supply were converted into district heating in regions, already covered by the district heating grid.
Read more about heating at the website of the Danish Energy Agency here and read the report made by the Danish Energy Agency on "The role of district heating in future energy supply" here.
Natural gas and fermentation gas
Natural gas is the common term for gas, exploited from the subsoil. Natural gas consists mainly of methane. The Danish production of oil and natural gas started in 1972, and since 1977 we have been self-sufficient in energy including natural gas. By means of a distribution grid of about 17,000 kilometres, gas is distributed to more than 400,000 customers. Since 2004 the law on supply of natural gas has ensured sales of natural gas on market conditions, which i.a. means that the customers are free to choose their supplier.
Based on the actual knowledge about reserves, the Danish Energy Agency assumes that the supply of natural gas will be depleted by 2045-2050. The Energy Agreement of 2012 includes an agreement of granting better conditions for fermentation gas and to financially support the use of fermentation gas in the natural gas grid. In the future, the major part of fermentation gas is expected to be fed to the natural gas grid. In this way, the decrease in the extraction of natural gas in the North Sea can be replaced by the rapidly increasing production of fermentation gas.
In Denmark, most fermentation gas is produced by biomass - in the form of livestock manure and other organic waste - being pumped into a hermetically sealed reactor vessel. Biomass contains organic substance that is eaten by bacteria that emit gas.
Read more at the Energinet.dk website about natural gas here and the Danish Energy Agency website about fermentation gas here.